1. Clarity and simplicity

Every element in a UI should be self-evident. Users should not wonder what a button does or where a link takes them. Clarity ensures that users understand the functionality without any added effort, while simplicity ensures that the design is stripped of unnecessary elements. Clearly, designed web applications have higher conversion rates, better user experiences, and easier goal completion.


Apple’s website has an intuitive navigation layout. Each row distinctly showcases a product, complemented by striking, high-resolution visuals at the core of the design. Each product receives dedicated space, eliminating clutter and distractions. Easily identifiable buttons guide users with a clear headline. The minimalistic site offers seamless transitions between sections, and ample white space offers users a visual break. A harmonious color palette and uniform typography for headers and buttons enhance the user experience.

2. Consistency

Consistency in UI elements such as buttons, icons, and color schemes ensures that users can learn how to use the interface quickly. When patterns are replicated, the learning curve is minimized, and users can interact with the product more confidently. Maintain the same practices for all pages of your website. Designing brand guidelines or design systems helps to keep your brand consistent across all channels. See some examples of brand guidelines from Slack or Audi.

Moreover, users must learn your design quickly; this is done by using familiar elements and labels they are used to. For instance, a trash can icon universally indicates ‘delete’, and an envelope suggests ‘mail’. Using universally recognized icons and patterns can enhance user understanding and create a consistent user experience.

3. Feedback

Whether visual or auditory, feedback is crucial in letting users know their action was recognized. This can be as simple as a button changing color when pressed or a sound playing when an action is completed. Feedback assures users that they’re on the right track.


The screenshot above shows the step-by-step onboarding of a SAAS company. The user sees which option they selected by introducing a blue border around the preferred option. Moreover, only the step the user is at is highlighted, and the rest of the options are faded out. This gives the user a clear indication of where they are in the onboarding process and where they need to go.

4. Accessibility

Accessibility is not an afterthought; it’s a vital component of good UI design. The design should be usable by everyone, including those with disabilities. This includes considering text sizes and color contrasts, providing alternative text for images, and navigating pages and accessible and easy-to-read content.

In the USA, the Americans with Disabilities Act prohibits discrimination against disabled citizens. While the ADA doesn’t mention websites, recent legal cases and guidelines have emphasized making online content accessible to those with disabilities.

While the ADA does not provide explicit guidelines for web design, the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG), developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), is widely accepted as the standard for accessibility.

You can test how accessible your website is using accessibilitychecker.org, or accessibe.com

5. Flexibility and low complexity

A good UI design is adaptable. It caters to diverse users with different levels of tech-savvy. It should allow novice users to navigate effortlessly and experienced users to carry out tasks efficiently. 

Users shouldn’t have to think too hard to use an interface. Cognitive load can be minimized by reducing the number of elements and choices, employing progressive disclosure (revealing information progressively), and maintaining simplicity.

This means that we shouldn’t try to cramp too many elements in a small space and not have too many calls to action; we should design our websites so they are easy to use and understand for everyone.

6. Hierarchy and Layout

The placement and size of elements play a pivotal role in guiding the user’s eye. Designers can influence which information is seen first and which action is taken by creating a clear visual hierarchy. Adequate spacing, layout grids, and well-chosen typefaces contribute to a well-organized visual path.

Main headings should be large and stand out. Color contrasts can help convey the importance of elements. Group similar elements together in columns and rows. Add plenty of spacing between elements. Organize your content correctly so the most critical information is at the top.

7. Error Prevention and Handling

While it’s essential to design ways for users to recover from mistakes, it’s even better to prevent the possibility of errors from the get-go. Simple things like confirming before deleting a vital document or using input masks in form fields can prevent mistakes.

8. Responsiveness.

Responsiveness implies delivering a seamless and optimized user experience, irrespective of the screen dimensions or device used. This characteristic is crucial for user satisfaction and holds great significance from a search engine perspective.
Search engines prioritize websites that offer a consistent and user-friendly experience across various devices.
Tools like Screenfly and platforms such as CrossBrowserTesting can be invaluable assets.

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